The bladder is a hollow organ in the pelvis with flexible, muscular walls. Its main function is to store urine before it leaves the body. Urine is made by the kidneys. From the kidneys, it is carried to the bladder through tubes called ureters; then it is excreted through the urethra. The bladder has four main layers. The transitional or urethelium is the innermost layer. The laminia propria is beneath the urethrlum and is comprised of a thin layer of connective tissue, blood vessels and nerves. Next is the muscularis propria, which is a thick layer of muscle. Outside of this muscle, a layer of fatty connective tissue separates the bladder from other nearby organs. Ninety-five percent of bladder cancers occur in the transitional layer. When cancers are non-invasive, they have occurred only in the transitional layer. When they have grown beyond the transitional layer, they are considered invasive.
Central Maryland Urology Associates has years of experience treating various bladder conditions, including: